Effetto Mozart: ascoltare la musica fa diventare i bambini più intelligenti?

L’Effetto Mozart è una teoria secondo la quale l’ascolto della musica di Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ed in particolare della Sonata in re maggiore per due pianoforti (KV 448) sarebbe in grado di provocare un temporaneo aumento delle capacità cognitive di chi l’ascolta.

Gordon Shaw e Frances Rauscher diedero l’avvio ad uno studio per controllare l’effetto della musica sull’attività cerebrale e quindi sulla performance, tale studio fu ribattezzato da Don Campbell con il nome di “Effetto Mozart“. Nel 14 ottobre 1993, l’esperimento venne pubblicato dalla rivista “Nature“, che ha pubblicato una breve sintesi dei risultati del loro esperimento: ad un gruppo fu fatta ascoltare una selezione della musica di Mozart, ad un secondo gruppo venne fatto ascoltare un  “nastro di rilassamento” (con suoni e musica ritenuti calmi e rilassanti), al terzo gruppo invece non è stata fatta  ascolatre nessuna musica o suono.

A tutti i partecipanti è stata data la stessa prova, il test di Stenford-Binet per misurare il QI (quoziente intellettivo). Gli studenti che hanno ascoltato la sonata di Mozart in media hanno avuto un aumento di 9 punti nel loro quoziente d’intelligenza rispetto alla media degli studenti che avevano ascoltato il nastro relax o che avevano sperimentato il semplice silenzio.

L’aumento del QI del gruppo Mozart era però transitorio, cioè era durato solo il tempo necessario per fare il test: da dieci a quindici minuti.

Tale test è stato replicato successivamente, ma non ci sono state conferme di questo aumento delle prestazioni intellettive, come aveva sottolineato il primo studio.

Riflettendoci però, molte persone affermano di studiare meglio con un sottofondo musicale, che la musica adatta aiuti la concentrazione, che aiuti la prestazione anche durante lo sport o che faciliti il rilassamento e l’addormentamento. In fondo qualsiasi musica ascoltiamo se ci produce piacere ha come effetto l’aumento della dopamina, che svolge un ruolo importante nel comportamento, per la motivazione, nell’inibizione della produzione di prolattina e nella gratificazione sessuale, per la regolazione del sonno, dell’umore, dell’attenzione, della memoria di lavoro e di apprendimento. Quindi non importa il tipo di musica ma che ci piaccia!!!

Nel libro “The Mozart Effect” Campbell parla dell’influenza della musica di Mozart per lo sviluppo cerebrale ed intellettivo del bambino dalla gestazione fino agli 8 anni d’età, ecco cosa propone:

  • Durante la gravidanza: Quartetto con archi in Re minore (K421); Concerto per Corno in Mi bemolle maggiore (K499).
  • Fino ai 18 mesi d’età: Sinfonia n. 25 in Sol minore (KV183); Quartetto n.20 in Re maggiore(K498).
  • Dai 18 mesi ai 6 anni d’età: Eine Kleine Nachtmusic (K525); Rondò, Ah! Vous dirais-je, maman (K265).
  • Dai 6 agli 8 anni d’età: Sinfonia n.6 ; Sinfonia n. 24.
  • Dagli 8 anni: Concerto per violino n.2 in Re maggiore; Sinfonia n.17.

Vero o non vero, l’Effetto Mozart ci ricorda che ascoltare musica fa bene, ascoltare TUTTI i tipi di musica certamente allarga la mente. Facevo ascoltare spesso la musica di Mozart ai miei bimbi quando erano in pancia, e lo faccio ancora adesso… certo spesso preferiscono Rovazzi e Gabbani, ma sono contenta che gli piaccia ascoltare di tutto, poi avranno i loro gusti musicali da affinare con il tempo!

Ci sono sempre più conferme del fatto che la musica migliori la nostra vita e di come le canzoni si leghino alla nostra memoria e che stimoli le nostre emozioni. Per cui “Effetto Mozart” o no, sappiamo che la musica fa bene al nostro cervello ed al nostro umore!

Dott.ssa Veronica Simeone


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